Pregnancy and the Nervous System
What is the nervous system?
The nervous system is a complex system that regulates and coordinates body activities. It is made up of two major divisions:
Central nervous system. This consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system. This consists of all other neural elements.
In addition to the brain and spinal cord, organs of the nervous system include:
Sensory organs of taste
Sensory organs of smell
Sensory receptors located in the skin, joints, muscles, and other parts of the body
What are some disorders of the nervous system?
Disorders of the nervous system may involve the following:
Vascular disorders such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and bleeding in or around the brain
Infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess
Structural disorders such as brain or spinal cord injury, Bell's palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or spinal cord tumors, peripheral neuropathy, and Guillain-Barré syndrome
Functional disorders such as headache, epilepsy, dizziness, and neuralgia
Degeneration such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's chorea, and Alzheimer's disease
What are some neurologic conditions that may be seen in pregnant women?
The most common conditions in pregnancy include the following:
Some neurologic diseases have little or no effect on pregnancy, while others can greatly increase the risks for pregnancy complications and maternal and fetal illness. Likewise, pregnancy can affect some neurologic conditions, but not others. Pregnancy-related complications of elevated blood pressure and fluid retention (pre-eclampsia and the more serious eclampsia) may cause neurological problems.
Care of pregnant women with neurologic conditions often involves a team of health care providers. Women can increase their chances for a healthy pregnancy by getting early and regular prenatal care and working with their health care providers in the management of their disease.