Children's Health and Wellness

Newborn Reflexes

Moro reflex

Tonic reflex

What reflexes should be present in a newborn?

Reflexes are involuntary movements or actions. Some movements are spontaneous, occurring as part of the baby's usual activity. Others are responses to certain actions. Health care providers check reflexes to determine if the brain and nervous system are working well. Some reflexes occur only in specific periods of development. The following are some of the normal reflexes seen in newborn babies:

Root reflex

This reflex begins when the corner of the baby's mouth is stroked or touched. The baby will turn his or her head and open his or her mouth to follow and "root" in the direction of the stroking. This helps the baby find the breast or bottle to begin feeding. This reflex lasts about 4 months.

Suck reflex

Rooting helps the baby become ready to suck. When the roof of the baby's mouth is touched, the baby will begin to suck. This reflex does not begin until about the 32nd week of pregnancy and is not fully developed until about 36 weeks. Premature babies may have a weak or immature sucking ability because of this. Babies also have a hand-to-mouth reflex that goes with rooting and sucking and may suck on fingers or hands.

Moro reflex

The Moro reflex is often called a startle reflex because it usually occurs when a baby is startled by a loud sound or movement. In response to the sound, the baby throws back his or her head, extends out the arms and legs, cries, then pulls the arms and legs back in. A baby's own cry can startle him or her and trigger this reflex. This reflex lasts until the baby is about 5 to 6 months old.

Tonic neck reflex

When a baby's head is turned to one side, the arm on that side stretches out and the opposite arm bends up at the elbow. This is often called the "fencing" position. This reflex lasts until the baby is about 5 to 6 months old.

Grasp reflex

Stroking the palm of a baby's hand causes the baby to close his or her fingers in a grasp. The grasp reflex lasts until the baby is about 5 to 6 months old.

Babinski reflex

When the sole of the foot is firmly stroked, the big toe bends back toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out. This normal reflex lasts until the child is about 2 years of age.

Step reflex

This reflex is also called the walking or dance reflex because a baby appears to take steps or dance when held upright with his or her feet touching a solid surface. This reflex lasts about 2 months.

Online Source: American Academy of Pediatricshttp://www.healthychildren.org/english/ages-stages/baby/pages/newborn-reflexes.aspx
Online Editor: Metzger, Geri K.
Online Medical Reviewer: Holloway, Beth, RN, M.Ed.
Online Medical Reviewer: MMI board-certified, academically affiliated clinician
Date Last Reviewed: 9/23/2014
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