What is tibial torsion?
Tibial torsion is an inward twisting of the shin bones (the bones that are located between the knee and the ankle). Tibial torsion causes the child's feet to turn inward, or have what is also known as a "pigeon-toed" appearance. It is typically seen among toddlers.
What causes tibial torsion?
Tibial torsion can happen due to the position of the baby in the uterus. It also has a tendency to run in families. Typically, a child's walking style looks like that of his or her parents.
When the child is first learning how to walk, tibial torsion can create an intoeing appearance. As the feet toe in, the legs look like they are bowed. The bowed leg stance actually helps children achieve greater balance as they stand. Their balance is not as steady when they try to stand and walk with their feet close together or with their feet turned out. This may cause them to trip and fall.
How is tibial torsion diagnosed?
The diagnosis of tibial torsion is made by a history and physical exam by your child's healthcare provider. During the exam, the healthcare provider obtains a complete prenatal and birth history of the child and asks if other family members are known to have tibial torsion. Typically, the diagnosis can be made without an X-ray.
Treatment for tibial torsion
Specific treatment for tibial torsion will be discussed with you by your child's healthcare provider based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
The extent of the condition
Your child's tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
The twisting of the shin bones usually improves with time. As the child grows, walking will become more normal, usually around 5 to 8 years of age.
Rarely, braces or special shoes are prescribed by the healthcare provider.
Long-term outlook for tibial torsion
Tibial torsion has a very good prognosis. Many cases correct themselves as the child grows. On rare occasions, tibial torsion can be severe and surgery may be needed to straighten the shin bones.
It is important to know that tibial torsion does not lead to arthritis or any other future health problems.