Children's Health and Wellness

What Do You Know About Birth Defects?

Test your knowledge of birth defects and what you can do to minimize the risk.

1. Annually, what percentage of U.S. infants are born with birth defects?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is According to the March of Dimes, about 1 in 33 babies born each year in the United States has a birth defect.A. 1 percent B. 3 percent C. 5 percent D. 10 percent 2. When is an unborn baby most at risk of developing abnormalities?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is That's why experts recommend that women planning to become pregnant visit their doctor first. This is especially important for women with chronic health conditions, the March of Dimes says.A. First trimester B. Second trimester C. Last trimester D. All 9 months 3. Which of these is one of the most common birth defects?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth abnormalities of the mouth and lip. They happen in about one in 700 births. These abnormalities occur early in pregnancy when the sides of the lip and the roof of the mouth do not fuse together as they should. A child can have cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. Most babies born with a cleft are otherwise healthy with no other birth abnormalities. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes a combination of birth defects, including some degree of intellectual disability, characteristic facial features and, often, heart defects, visual and hearing impairment, and other health problems. These problems vary greatly in severity. According to the CDC, Down syndrome affects approximately one in 691 babies.A. Down syndrome B. Heart abnormalities C. Spina bifida D. Cleft lip/cleft palate E. both A and D 4. Which of these habits of the mother-to-be can be harmful to the fetus?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Smoking increases the risk for miscarriage or damage to developing fetal organs. Alcohol and illegal drugs can increase the risk for fetal abnormalities and miscarriage.A. Smoking B. Drinking alcohol C. Taking illegal drugs D. All of the above 5. A woman who is pregnant or considering pregnancy should get a medical checkup. Which of these immunizations should be current before she conceives because of the danger of the disease to the fetus?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is If a woman is not immune to rubella, infection during pregnancy can result in a group of birth defects called the congenital rubella syndrome. Defects include decreased growth, intellectual disability, small head, congenital cataracts or cloudiness of the cornea, deafness, and heart defects.A. Tetanus B. Diphtheria-polio-tetanus C. Measles, mumps, and rubella D. Flu 6. Doctors advise women to take 400 mcg of folic acid daily before conception and during pregnancy. What can this help prevent in the baby?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Taking folic acid supplements may reduce the risk for a group of conditions called neural tube defects by 50 percent.A. Respiratory distress B. Brain and spinal defects C. Blood disorders D. Learning disorders 7. Pregnant women should avoid handling cat litter to decrease the risk of becoming infected with which of these?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is This parasitic infection can be transmitted to humans through cat feces and can seriously harm an unborn baby. Infection during pregnancy can result in premature delivery, low birth weight, intellectual disability, motor retardation, small head, small eyes and blindness, seizures, hydrocephalus, and damage to the liver and blood-forming organs.A. Toxoplasmosis B. Streptococcus C. E. coli bacteria D. HIV 8. Which of these kinds of medications can cause birth defects if taken when pregnant?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Many prescription and over-the-counter medications aren't safe for pregnant women to take. An expectant mother should check with her doctor before taking any medication or supplement.A. Prescription medications B. Over-the-counter medications C. Herbal remedies D. All of the above 9. During prenatal care, a physician may recommend genetic screening tests for certain disorders. What is one thing that amniocentesis tests for?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Amniocentesis usually is done between the 15th and 20th week of pregnancy. Down syndrome is one of the most common genetic chromosomal abnormalities tested for. The number of conditions that can be diagnosed by amniocentesis increases yearly. Amniocentesis can be used to diagnose many chromosomal abnormalities, DNA-gene abnormalities, and enzyme and amino acid abnormalities. In late pregnancy, amniocentesis can even help determine how mature the fetus' lungs are.A. Down syndrome B. Multiple sclerosis C. Cancer D. Attention deficit disorder 10. Extra or missing chromosomes trigger genetic birth defects. What factor greatly increases the risk of an abnormal number of chromosomes in the fetus?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Women 35 and older have a greater risk of having a child with chromosomal abnormalities. This is especially true for trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome.A. Older age of the mother B. Father's nutritional deficiencies C. Mother's diet D. None of the above Your score was:
Print Source: Initial Prenatal Assessment and Patient Education, UptoDate.
Print Source: Vitality magazine
Online Source: Screening for birth defects, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologistshttp://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq165.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130523T1540509356
Online Source: Cleft lip and cleft palate, American Speech-Language-Hearing Associationhttp://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/CleftLip.htm
Online Source: Facts about Down syndrome, CDChttp://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/downsyndrome.html
Online Source: 1 in 33, CDChttp://www.nbdpn.org/docs/1in33.pdf
Online Editor: Sinovic, Dianna
Online Medical Reviewer: Dozier, Tennille, RN, BSN, RDMS
Online Medical Reviewer: newMentor board-certified, academically affiliated clinician
Date Last Reviewed: 6/29/2013