Children's Health and Wellness

What Do You Know About Birth Defects?

See how much you know about birth defects. Learn what you can do to lower your risk.

1. How many babies in the U.S. are born with birth defects?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is According to the March of Dimes, about 1 in 33 babies born each year in the U.S. has a birth defect.A. 1% B. 3% C. 5% D. 10% 2. When is an unborn baby most at risk of developing a birth defect?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is That's why experts recommend that women planning to become pregnant visit their doctor first. This is especially important for women with chronic health conditions, the March of Dimes says.A. First trimester B. Second trimester C. Last trimester D. All 9 months 3. Which of these is a common birth defect?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects of the mouth and lip. They happen in about 1 in 700 births. These problems occur early in pregnancy. The sides of the lip and the roof of the mouth don’t join together as they should. A child can have cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. Most babies born with a cleft are otherwise healthy, with no other birth problems. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes a combination of birth defects. These include intellectual problems, certain facial features and, often, heart defects, visual and hearing problems, and other health problems. These problems vary greatly in how severe they are. According to the CDC, Down syndrome affects about 1 in 691 babies.A. Down syndrome B. Heart abnormalities C. Spina bifida D. Cleft lip/cleft palate E. both A and D 4. Which of these habits of the mother-to-be can be harmful to the fetus?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Smoking raises the risk for miscarriage or damage to developing fetal organs. Alcohol and illegal drugs can raise the risk for fetal problems and miscarriage.A. Smoking B. Drinking alcohol C. Taking illegal drugs D. All of the above 5. A woman who is pregnant or considering pregnancy should get a medical checkup. Which of these vaccines should be up to date before she gets pregnant because of the danger of the disease to the fetus?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is If a woman is not immune to rubella, infection during pregnancy can cause a group of birth defects called the congenital rubella syndrome. Defects include decreased growth, intellectual problems, small head, congenital cataracts or cloudiness of the cornea, deafness, and heart defects.A. Tetanus B. Diphtheria-polio-tetanus C. Measles, mumps, and rubella D. Flu 6. Doctors advise women to take 400 mcg of folic acid daily before they get pregnant and during pregnancy. What can this help prevent in the baby?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Taking folic acid supplements may lower the risk for a group of conditions called neural tube defects by 50%.A. Respiratory distress B. Brain and spinal defects C. Blood disorders D. Learning disorders 7. Pregnant women should not handle cat litter to lower the risk of becoming infected with which of these?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is This infection can be passed to humans through cat feces. It can seriously harm an unborn baby. Infection during pregnancy can cause premature delivery, low birth weight, intellectual problems, muscle movement problems, small head, small eyes and blindness, seizures, hydrocephalus, and damage to the liver and blood-forming organs.A. Toxoplasmosis B. Streptococcus C. E. coli bacteria D. HIV 8. Which of these kinds of medicines can cause birth defects if taken when pregnant?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Many prescription and over-the-counter medicines aren't safe for pregnant women to take. An expectant mother should check with her doctor before taking any medicine or supplement.A. Prescription medicines B. Over-the-counter medicines C. Herbal remedies D. All of the above 9. During prenatal care, a health care provider may recommend genetic screening tests for certain disorders. What is one thing that amniocentesis tests for?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Amniocentesis usually is done between the 15th and 20th week of pregnancy. Down syndrome is one of the most common genetic chromosome problems tested for. The number of conditions that can be diagnosed by amniocentesis increases every year. Amniocentesis can be used to diagnose many chromosome problems, DNA-gene problems, and enzyme and amino acid problems. In late pregnancy, amniocentesis can even help find out how mature the fetus' lungs are.A. Down syndrome B. Multiple sclerosis C. Cancer D. Attention deficit disorder 10. Extra or missing chromosomes trigger genetic birth defects. What factor greatly increases the risk for an abnormal number of chromosomes in the fetus?You didn't answer this question.You answered The correct answer is Women 35 and older have a greater risk of having a child with chromosome problems. This is especially true for trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome.A. Older age of the mother B. Father's diet C. Mother's diet D. None of the above Your score was:
Print Source: Initial Prenatal Assessment and Patient Education, UptoDate.
Print Source: Vitality magazine
Online Source: Screening for birth defects, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologistshttp://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq165.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130523T1540509356
Online Source: Cleft lip and cleft palate, American Speech-Language-Hearing Associationhttp://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/CleftLip.htm
Online Source: Facts about Down syndrome, CDChttp://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/downsyndrome.html
Online Source: 1 in 33, CDChttp://www.nbdpn.org/docs/1in33.pdf
Online Editor: Sinovic, Dianna
Online Medical Reviewer: MMI board-certified, academically affiliated clinician
Online Medical Reviewer: Trevino, Heather M, BSN, RNC
Date Last Reviewed: 8/31/2014