Medical Specialties



    A tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has throat infections that keep coming back. Adenoidectomy is recommended if your child has a lot of trouble breathing through the nose. Often the tonsils and adenoids are removed at the same time.

    Airway Stenosis (such as Subglottic Stenosis, Tracheal Stenosis, Laryngotracheal Clefts)

    Stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is a sign that the upper airway is partially blocked. It may involve the nose, mouth, sinuses, voice box (larynx), or windpipe (trachea).

    Allergic Rhinitis

    Rhinitis is a reaction that happens in the eyes, nose, and throat when allergens in the air trigger the release of histamine in the body. Histamine causes itching, swelling, and fluid to build up in the fragile linings of nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.

    Chronic Ear Disease

    Chronic Tonsillitis

    Pharyngitis is redness, pain, and swelling of the throat (pharynx). Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils. The tonsils are a pair of tissue masses on either side of the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system, the part of the body that fights infection and other disease.

    Cleft Palate/Cleft Lip

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are openings or splits in the upper lip or roof of the mouth (palate). A child can be born with a cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. Cleft lip and palate may be the only birth defects, or they may happen with other defects.

    Complex Airway Diseases (Choanal Atresia, Airway Tumors, Masses)

    Down Syndrome

    Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes certain birth defects, learning problems, and facial features.

    Ear Infections (Otitis Media) or Ear Tubes

    Facial Paralysis

    Some babies have a more difficult trip through the birth canal than others, resulting in physical injuries. These injuries usually are not serious and clear up or improve within a few days or weeks after the birth.

    Feeding and Swallowing Disorders

    Food Allergies

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a long-term (chronic) digestive disorder. It happens when stomach contents flow back up (reflux) into the food pipe (esophagus).

    Head and Neck Masses

    Detailed information on neck masses in children

    Hearing Loss & Impairment

    Sensorineural hearing loss involves the inner ear or its connection with the brain. Conductive hearing loss involves the middle or outer ear.


    Congenital laryngeal stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is from an abnormally formed voice box (larynx). It is present at birth (congenital).

    Laryngopharygeal Reflux (LPR)

    Lymphatic Malformations

    A lymphatic malformation  is a lymphatic vessel that isn’t formed right. The malformations are lymphatic tissue filled with fluid (cyst). Your child may have one or more of these cysts.

    Nasal Deformities

    Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip, cleft palate, craniosynostosis, hemifacial microsomia, vascular malformation, hemangioma, and deformational plagiocephaly

    Nasal Obstruction

    Children usually place things in their ears because they are bored, curious, or copying other children. Some objects may cause no symptoms, but other objects, such as food and insects, may cause pain in the ear, redness, or drainage.

    Salivary Disease

    Sinus Disease

    Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses. These infections usually happen after a cold or with allergies. There are 3 types of sinusitis: short term (acute), long-term (acute), and recurrent.

    Sleep Apnea

    Obstructive sleep apnea is when a child briefly stops breathing while sleeping. It happens because of a blockage in the upper airway. The pause in breathing may occur many times in a night, disrupting the child’s sleep.

    Speech Disorders

    A child with a communication disorder has trouble communicating with others. He or she may not understand or make the sounds of speech. The child may also struggle with word choice, word order, or sentence structure.


    Stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is a sign that the upper airway is partially blocked. It may involve the nose, mouth, sinuses, voice box (larynx), or windpipe (trachea).

    Thyroid Conditions

    Detailed information on thyroid conditions and pregnancy

    Tongue Tie (Ankyloglossia)


    Vascular Malformations

    Hemangiomas are growths of blood vessels. They’re also called birthmarks. But they often can't be seen at birth. They usually form in the first few weeks of life.